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Full text of "Handbook Of Chemical Engineering - I"

146
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
weight of air by its specific heat and adding to this the product of the weight of water vapor and its specific heat and dividing the sum by the weight of the mixture. Table 4 is calculated on that basis.
The mean specific heat of air having any relative humidity may be found from Table 4 by interpolation. E.g., for air of 50 per cent relative humidity and at 80F. the mean specific heat will be 0.2418 + 0.40 X (0.2466 - 0.2418), or 0.2437.
The variation of the specific heat of air with pressure has been investigated by Holborn and Jakob (Z. V. D. /., Vol. 58, p. 1436). The mean specific heat at constant pressure for the temperature range 20-100C. (68-212F.) is given by the equation 10% = 2,413 + 286p -f 0.0005 p2  0.00001 p3, where p is the pressure in kilograms per square centimeter. The experimental values are given below: Pressure, pounds per square
inch absolute..............      14.2         356         711      1,422      2,133      2,844
CP..........................  0.2415    0.2490   0.2554    0.2690    0.2821    0.2925
The mean specific heats of various gases are given in Table 5.
TABLE 5.MEAN SPECIFIC HEATS OF GASES
	Under constant pressure	Under constant volume	V
Acetylene         ............................			1.26
Air, 20 C   .............................	0.2417	01724.	1.402
Ammonia   ..............................	0.5356	0.391	1.336
Argon   20 to 90C           .................	0 123		1  66
Benzene   34 to 115    .....................	0.299		(20) 1 40
Bromine, 19 to 388 ......................	0.0555	0.0429	
Carbon dioxide, 0 .........................	0.2010	0.172	1 30
Carbon disulphide   86 to 190     .            .   .	0 1596	0 131	1 239
Carbon monoxide, 23 to 99      . .             ...	0 2425	0 1736	1 401
Chlorine ..................................	0.1241	0.0928	1.33
Ethane               ...........................			1 22
Ethylene         ............................	0.404		1 264
Hydrogen          ...........................	3.4090	2.411	1 42
Iodine   206 to 377 C	0 034		
Methane ..................................	0.5929	0 . 486	1 313
Nitrogen 0C    .....................	0.2350	0 1727	1 41
Nitrous oxide   ........................	0.2262	0 181	1 324
Oxygen. .        .............................	0.2175	0 1723	1 41 
Sulphur dioxide	0 1544	0 123	(500) 1 2
Water ....................................	0.4805	0.370	1 305
Hydrochloric acid	0 1867		1 40
Nitric oxide   13 to 172                         ....	0 232		1 394
Nitrogen peroxide, 27 to 67                . .   .	1 625		(150) 1 31
Sulphuretted hydrogen, 20 to 206  ......	0.245		1 340
Turpentine, 179 to 249 ....................	0.506		
			
Calculations of the work done by the expansion of air are greatly facilitated by the diagram, Fig. 1, adapted from the "Entropy-Log. Temperature Diagram for Air" by Prof. C. R. Richards (Bulletin No. 63, University of Illinois Experiment Station).
In Fig. 1 the vertical lines represent the volume in cubic feet occupied by 1 Ib.